In the southern US and Mexico, clay tile roofs are also very popular, due to their longevity, and ability to withstand hurricane winds with minimal or no damage.
There are four main types of roofers: shinglers, who primarily install shingles, shakes, tiles, and other nail-on products on roofs with 5:12 pitches or above; metal roofers, who focus on metal panels; single-ply or "flat" roofers, who focus on roofs such as single-ply or foam roofs; and "hot" roofers, who work using tar-based products. It is not uncommon, however, for companies to have their roofers service multiple styles and types of roofing; and certain manufactures will allow only pre-approved installers, thus making these four roofer types limiting. As per the application areas, roofing contractors can be categorized as Industrial or commercial roofers, Factory Shed roofers, Residential Roofers, Commercial roofers. Based on the types of the materials, roofing can be classified as terrace roofing, metal roofing, polycarbonate roofing, steel roofing, PVC roofing, skylight roofing. Pre-engineered companies installs roofing.
Most building materials are permeable to water vapour; brick, concrete, plaster, wood and insulation all can fall victim to interstitial condensation, this is why UK Building Regulations require roofs to be ventilated, either by the use of soffit vents, ridge vents, or replacement ventilation slates or tiles.
Stone lintels have been used to support roofs since prehistoric times, but cannot bridge large distances. The stone arch came into extensive use in the ancient Roman period and in variant forms could be used to span spaces up to 140 feet (43 m) across. The stone arch or vault, with or without ribs, dominated the roof structures of major architectural works for about 2,000 years, only giving way to iron beams with the Industrial Revolution and the designing of such buildings as Paxton's Crystal Palace, completed 1851.
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