Pre-manufactured roof trusses come in a wide variety of styles. They are designed by the manufacturer for each specific building. Timber trusses also are built in a variety of styles using wood or metal joints. Heavy timber rafters typically spaced 8 feet (2.4 m) to 12 feet (3.7 m) apart are called principal rafters. Principal rafters may be mixed with common rafters or carry common purlins.
Depending on the region, other commonly applied roofing materials installed by roofers include concrete tiles, clay tiles, natural or synthetic slate, single-ply (primarily EPDM rubber, PVC, or TPO), rubber shingles (made from recycled tires), glass, metal panels or shingles, wood shakes or shingles, liquid-applied, hot asphalt/rubber, foam, thatch, and solar tiles. "Living roof" systems, or rooftop landscapes, have become increasingly common in recent years in both residential and commercial applications.
The supporting structure of a roof usually comprises beams that are long and of strong, fairly rigid material such as timber, and since the mid-19th century, cast iron or steel. In countries that use bamboo extensively, the flexibility of the material causes a distinctive curving line to the roof, characteristic of Oriental architecture.
There are four main types of roofers: shinglers, who primarily install shingles, shakes, tiles, and other nail-on products on roofs with 5:12 pitches or above; metal roofers, who focus on metal panels; single-ply or "flat" roofers, who focus on roofs such as single-ply or foam roofs; and "hot" roofers, who work using tar-based products. It is not uncommon, however, for companies to have their roofers service multiple styles and types of roofing; and certain manufactures will allow only pre-approved installers, thus making these four roofer types limiting. As per the application areas, roofing contractors can be categorized as Industrial or commercial roofers, Factory Shed roofers, Residential Roofers, Commercial roofers. Based on the types of the materials, roofing can be classified as terrace roofing, metal roofing, polycarbonate roofing, steel roofing, PVC roofing, skylight roofing. Pre-engineered companies installs roofing.
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